Technology

Consensus

The Metastem Chain uses the POS verification mechanism at the verification layer, and the block producer strategy at the production layer to achieve faster block generation times. The hashrate of the entire network is controlled by the user who owns the MTS mining plan, and will be accounted for by each user. The percentage of network hashrate is used to proportionately distribute mining revenue.
Through this mechanism, Metastem Chain achieves high transaction speed, high decentralization and high certainty on the main chain. It is not only compatible with the EVM of Ethereum; Metastem Chain also increases the network speed and reduces gas fees.

Verification Layer & Block Producer

The verification mechanism of Metastem allows all early stage users to purchase the hashrate of Metastem Chain and own the governance rights of the project. Transactions and governance decisions are recorded in smart contracts, providing a highly decentralized base layer for Metastem.
At the block layer of Metastem, all users with hashrate jointly select block producers. These users with hashrate provide Metastem Chain with the right to produce blocks. In order to ensure faster block production rights, there will be a limited number of block producers. This layer offers users nearly negligible transaction costs and a confirmation time of about 3 seconds.

Checkpoint Mechanism

On the basis of Metastem Network's Checkpointing layer and PoS mechanism, for every few blocks on the Metastem, a representative will be selected from among the stakeholders to propose a checkpoint on the main chain. These checkpoints are created by the representative after verifying all blocks on the Metastem network block layer and creating a Merkle tree of new block hashes since the last checkpoint, and subsequently distributing the Merkle root to the Stake network for them to sign. Other stakeholders are also required to verify the proof. If the proposed block is valid, they will approve the proposed block by providing a signature.

Cross-chain Transmission and Communication

Cross-chain communication is the key foundation for the community to use the dual-chain structure:
  • Users can freely create any tokenization, financial products and digital assets on Metastem Chain according to their own wishes.
  • Projects on Metastem Chain can be traded and circulated manually in the stable, high-throughput, fast and friendly environment of Metastem Chain.
  • Users can operate the above in a user-friendly UI and tool ecosystem.

Cross-chain Bridge

We will deploy a cross-chain bridge based on the Ethereum network and Metastem Chain, facilitating the mapping of ERC20 and NFT. The cross-chain bridge is the key communication between any two blockchains. The essential logic is:
1. The transfer-outblockchain will lock the amount from the source owner's address to the system control address or contract;
2. The transfer-inblockchain will control the address or debit the unlocked amount from the system and send it to the target address.
  • Validator: When a deposit occurs on the Ethereum main chain, each validator node will receive it and forward it to the Metastem Chain node by sending a transaction. These operations will be relayed to the sidechain validator. When there are enough confirmations, the transaction will be confirmed on the Metastem Chain.
  • Deposit: Users can deposit ETH, ERC20, or ERC721 by sending transactions to the main chain gateway contract, and waiting for the deposit to be verified on the Metastem Chain. Before the depsoit assets can be used, the gateway will establish a mapping relationship between Ethereum and the token contract on the Metastem Chain.
  • Withdrawal: There will be a token mapping between Metastem Chain and Ethereum for users to withdraw tokens. When users want to withdraw tokens from Metastem Chain to Ethereum, they will send a transaction to validator to verify, and provide a signature to indicate that there is a withdrawal action sent. When the withdrawal collects enough signatures, the corresponding assets will be directly sent to the user's address.

Security

In order to improve the security of transactions, Metastem Chain provides proof of fraud on the main chain. This mechanism enables any individual user on the main chain to submit details of transactions that he believes to be fraudulent. If the fraud report is successful, the shares of all parties involved in the fraud will be debited, and the challenger will receive the reduced funds as an incentive to detect fraud. For any party wishing to investigate the authenticity of transactions on the Metastem Chain network, this can be regarded as a reliable, high-reward bounty program.